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Luther’s 16th Century World

This page is an introduction to the history, culture, people, and issues of the Renaissance and Reformation eras. Visit our separate link of images on the drop down menu.

Luther's Hymns for Worship

Ah, Dearest Jesus, Holy Child, From Heaven Above to Earth I Come, Dear Christians, One and All Rejoice, We Praise, O Christ, Your Holy Name, Christ Jesus Lay in Death's Strong Bands, Ah God, From Heaven Look Down and See, and Come, God Creator, Holy Ghost

Luther's Hymns for Daily Living

Even as We Live Each Day, God is Our Refuge in Distress, Happy Who in God's Fear Doeth Stay, Happy the Man who Feareth God, A New Song Now Shall be Begun

Luther's Hymns for Religious Instruction

The Lord's Prayer, The Ten Commandments, God, the Father, be Our Stay, All Glory be to God Alone, If God Were Not Beside Us Now

Hymns Inspired by the Reformation

A MIghty Fortress is Our God, All Praise to You, My God this Night, Away in a Manger, Welcome to Earth, Thou Noble Guest, Amazing Grace

Luther's Instagram - Famous Works of Art!

The Reformation revolutionized art by motivating artists to capture the emotions in Bible stories, their faith, the importance of forgiveness, and their personal relationship with Jesus Christ.  The translation of the Holy Bible into vernacular languages, new understandings about life, culture, and morality, and the technology of woodcuts, engraving, and the printing press became motivating factors for artists.   Enjoy a powerful level of ipersonal nquiry as you view the following paintings:

Denial of Peter - Caravaggio, 1610  (prepared by Hank Bitten)

The Crowning with Thorns - Titian, 1542 (prepared by Hank Bitten)

Raising of the Cross - Rembrandt, 1633 (prepared by Olivia Facini)

Crucifixion - Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1538 (prepared by Olivia Facini)

The Crucifixion - Titian, 1558 (prepared by Hank Bitten)

Lamentation Over the Dead Christ With Saints - Sondra Botticelli, 1490 (prepared by Olivia Facini)

The Resurrection - Matthias Grunewald, 1512 (prepared by Hank Bitten)

The Calling of Matthew - Jan VanHemessen, 1524 (prepared by Hank Bitten)

The Four Apostles - Albrecht Durer, 1526 (prepared by Hank Bitten)

Tempi Madonna - Raphael, 1508 (prepared by Hank Bitten

Mary Magdalene - Titian, 1531 (prepared by Hank Bitten)

The Law and The Gospel - Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1529 (prepared by Hank Bitten)

Renaissance Time Line - Important Events

What do you remember about life in the 16th century?

Martin Luther's Facebook Page

Meet the contemporaries of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther in the 16th century!

The Wittenberg Times - Martin Luther's perspective on news events between 1526-1550.

1526 1527 1528 1529 1530
1531 1532 1533 1534 1535
1536 1537 1538 1539 1540
1541 1542 1543 1544 1545
1546 1547 1548 1549 1550

Martin Luther's 16th Century Views on Education

Read about Luther's progressive views on education and the importance of having a literate population to read the Holy Bible. Permission received from the author (Dr. Riemer Faber) to use for educational reasons without editing.

Account of a Christian Woman  (1523)

An amazing perspective of a brave woman during the first years of the Protestant Reformation in Germany

Facing the Nation (Issues Facing the Holy Roman Emperor)

Looking for an exciting discussion or debate with friends?  This is our version of the Sunday morning Talk Show - Face the Nation!

Historic Churches in Europe (Slide show of European churches related to Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation)

Amazing pictures of historic landmark churches in Europe!

Renaissance Music (Click on the links below from to listen to selections)

Josquin Desprez

Ave Maria
Missa Pange lingua - Kyrie
Petite Camusette

Renaissance Time Line - Important People (Dates represent a two-year period of time)


Michelangelo completes sculpture of “David”                                                                                               
Aldus of Venice invents italics and establishes an Academy to study Greek classics                                                
Sondra Botticelli “Mystical Nativity”                                                                                                           
Albrecht Durer paints his third “Self Portrait”


Bellini paints “Baptism of Christ”                                                                                                                       
Peter Henlein makes the first watch in Nuremberg                                                                                               
Construction begins on Henry VII chapel in Westminster Abbey


Raphael paints “Marriage of the Virgin”                                                                                                           
Lorenzo Lotto paints “Allegory of Chastity”                                                                                              
John Colet becomes Dean of St. Paul’s Churchin London                                                                                   
John Knox born (Leader of Reformation in Scotland)
Leonardo DaVinci begins painting the “Mona Lisa”


Leonardo DaVinci completes painting the “Mona Lisa”                                                                                   
St. Francis Xavier born                                                                                                                                    
Bramante begins to build St. Peter’s                                                                                                           
Raphael paints “Madonna di Casa”                                                                                                                       
Albrecht Durer paints “Adam and Eve”                                                                                                                                                                                      


Ariosto writes “Cassaria” (comedy)                                                                                                            
Michelangelo begins to paint the Sistine Chapel                                                                                               
John Calvin born (Reformed church)                                                                                                           
Albrecht Durer paints “Little Passion”                       


Sondra Botticelli died                                                                                                                                    
Desiderius Erasmus publishes Praise of Folly                                                                                               
Titian paints “The Gypsy Madonna”                                                                                                           
Schlick composed “Spiegel der Orgelmacher und Organisten                                                                                    
Matthias Grunewald begins the Isenheim altar                                                          
Albrecht  Durer paints “Adoration of the Trinity”


Raphael completes portrait of Pope Julius II                                                                                                           
Michelangelo finishes painting the Sistine Chapel                                                                                               
Erhart Deglin publishes “Liederbuch zu vier Stimmen”                                                                                    
Machiavelli writes “The Prince and “La Mandragola”
Erasmus publishes Praise of Folly


Thomas Wolsey made Archbishop of York                                                                                                           
Titian paints “The Tribute Money” and “Flora”                                                                                               
Bramante died                                                                                                                                               
Anne of Cleves born (4th queen of Henry VIII)


Thomas More publishes Utopia                                                                                                                       
Ullrich von Hutten named “King of Poets” by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I


Leonardo DaVincidied                                                                                                                                   
Magellan begins circumnavigation of the globe.


Raphael died
Magellan killed in the Philippines


Christian II deposed in Denmark
Frederick I becomes new king of Norway & Denmark                                  
Pope Adrian VI died from the plague after only one year as pope                                                                       
Anthony Fitzherbert publishes first book of agriculture.


William Tyndale translates the New Testament into English                                                                                    
Lorenzo Lotto paints “Portrait of a Young Man”.                 


Albrecht Durer paints “The Four Apostles”                                                                                                           
Nicolai Machiavelli died                                                                                                                                   
Baldassare Castiglione writes “The Courtier”                                                                                                
Adrian Willaert named maestro at St. Mark’s Venice                                                                                               


Albrecht Durer died                                                                                                                                   
Henry VIII presents his reasons for a divorce from Catherine of Aragon.


Women appear on the stage in Italy                                                                                                                      
Lorenzo Lotto paints “Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery”                                                                       
Gemma Frisius introduces longitude as a measure of time                                                                                   

The Lesser Reformers (Martin Luther, Ulrich Zwingli, John Calvin, and Henry VIII are the reformers many are familiar with. The following article is published with the permission of Evangelical Focus from Spain ranking the "Top Ten" other reformers.  Click on the link to our survey to rank your "Top 5!"

The Ten Lesser Reformers (May 2016)  

Click to rank the top 5 Lesser Reformers